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0 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

Wren同学有幸给朋友家的一本家书做了一下业余级别的中文翻译,但怎么也不理解Kuling是个什么地方,在哪里?在网上找到了很久也找不到资料。但是功夫不负有心人,今年中终于找到了一篇文献,唯一的,出自央视国际台2007年4月播出的一个纪录片《李德立的别墅梦》文本解说。这里全文转发,并附上Wren的业余翻译稿,有兴趣的网友可看看。将来带亲爱的伴侣游庐山,记得去看这个地方。此外请学习一个诀窍,找对象也要学会使用关键字,使得你的那一个能找到你和认到你。对不对,时间会给出答案。

感谢CCTV。未经授权转载,此系非商业转载。欢迎中英文同好友好讨论、评述、匠正。
2019-12-01 13:56
IP:174.216.11.*

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1 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

庐山,古称匡庐,因匡氏兄弟结庐成仙于此而得名,因此庐山也被称作“神仙之庐”。在此之后,李白、苏东坡、白居易、朱熹等历代名人也都曾在庐山结庐而居。 从古至今,庐山就是一个最适合人居住的地方。  

站在庐山东谷牯岭镇的高地,人们可以看到,在郁郁葱葱的绿树之间,掩映着一栋栋风格迥异的西洋别墅,它们建造精美,规划合理,错落有致,集中了欧美各国的建筑特点,在清末民初,这座江边名山曾经汇集了世界各地20多个国家,几千个人在此居住,因此这里也被称为万国建筑博物馆,今天,到庐山看别墅,已成为庐山之行最重要的一个行程。但是,很少有人知道,庐山上美仑美奂的西洋别墅,竟出自一个青年英国人的梦想。   

这是庐山一个名叫“月照松林”的地方,在树林的深处,有一座废弃的别墅,由于别墅大量地采用了木材和玻璃,因此当地人把它称为玻璃屋。这座别墅的主人就是庐山近代别墅区的开创者,英国传教士李德立。  

李德立,1864年出生在英国苏格兰肯特郡。1886年,22岁的李德立来到了中国。  

清光绪12年,1886年的冬天,庐山人迹罕至,异常的冷清。一天,崎岖难行的山路上,来了两个身穿传教士服装的人,其中一个就是李德立,这一年,李德立仅仅携带一本世界地图、一本英国传教士编写的《来华指南》就只身来到中国。虽然天气奇冷,路也不好走,但是他们丝毫没有退缩的意思。谁也没有想到,在这寒冷的冬天,他们登临庐山的目的,竟是要在山上建造一个避暑胜地。  

这里是长江边重要的口岸,九江,100多年前,李德立就是从这里出发登上庐山的。1860年,九江被迫成为对外开放口岸,许多西方的冒险家来到中国淘金,李德立也不例外。和其他淘金者不同的是,22岁的他,身上穿着却是传教士的衣服。
2019-12-01 14:01
IP:174.216.11.*

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2 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

采访:文化学者 罗时叙

他是一个名不见经传,我查遍了外国驻华的基督教传教士的名录,居然没有他,显而易见,他不是一个被正式任命了的传教士,更不用说是哪个教派里面的主 教。  

在当时的中国,西方教 会是捷足先登的势力,一些冒险家,往往会以传教士的身份进入中国来拓展空间。这也许正是李德立要假冒传教士的原因,而实质上,李德立就是一个彻头彻尾的穿西服的商人。到中国寻找商机的李德立发现,长江边的许多城市每到夏天,就酷热难耐,瘟疫横行。许多在华的西方人都希望有一个避暑胜地。就在这个时候,李德立把目光瞄向了鄱阳湖边的庐山。
2019-12-01 14:11
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3 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

采访:庐山李德立纪念馆馆长 李震

到了近代以后,庐山实际上也是非常破败,佛教在庐山上面烟火不是那么旺了,包括书院文化也已经没落了。  

然而即便如此,李德立想在荒僻的庐山上买地建房,也并不会是件容易的事,当时的清朝政 府对洋人在中国买卖土地控 制得还很严,于是李德立就想和九峰寺的和尚济慈合作开发寺庙的土地。于是,一个信奉上帝的传教士和一个供奉佛祖的僧人在庐山上进行了一场马拉松式的谈判。  

李德立后来在他的回忆录《庐山开辟记》上写到:这个继慈和尚,实在不易对付。他们一片极小而且极不适用的土地,每每索价甚巨。最终双方在价格上谈崩,由于言语不合,曾经在湘军里做过侩子手,后来立地成佛的主持“济慈”忍不住旧病复发,要痛打李德立,吓得李德立只能夺门而逃。但是李德立并没有就此放弃,他继续翻山越岭,寻找理想中的土地。一天,当他登上女儿城的高地时,放眼望去,长冲谷平坦、宽阔、秀美的土地一览无余。

采访:庐山李德立纪念馆馆长 李震

对面的山头就是女儿城,当年李德立就是站在女儿城的山顶上发现了庐山东谷这一块土地非常地平坦,水源充足,阳光明媚,他觉得在这里建造别墅,将会是人间的天堂。  

照片上显示的就是李德立相中那块土地,开发前的庐山东谷。那么,作为一个外国人,又怎么才能从清政 府手里搞到这片土地呢?李德立想到了一个迂回的办法。他买通了当地的一个中国人,出面和地方官员交涉,希望能够租下这块土地,当地的官员以为李德立是一个中国人,于是爽快地答应了下来。开始进展还算顺利,但是后来当地的官员发现,李德立居然是个外国人,于是就断然收回了契约。一计不成,又生一计。这一次李德立想到了走上层路线。

采访:文化学者 罗时叙

那时候道台,广饶九南道,比现在九江市管的范围还大,还包括上饶那一部分,他是找了二把手叫(童芝),这个人略懂英文,就多和他交道了,那个时候这个童芝比较喜欢西方的一些家具,一些饰品,这些小的玩意,就送了一个电铃给他,还送了一个银杯,就是英国产的给他,这样关系就拉近了。  

果然是钱能通神,在九江道台的施压下,李德立只找了一个中国人代理,就将庐山4500亩土地承租了下来。正当李德立踌躇满志,准备圆他的心中梦想时,一把大火烧到了他的头上。  

一天夜晚,庐山上的百姓突然举着火把,出现在了李德立位于汉口峡的住处。原来,得知清政 府把长冲一带土地租给了洋人,当地百姓以开发会破坏龙脉为由,义愤填膺地前来找李德立的麻烦,由于语言障碍,双方难以沟通,结果越闹越僵,于是愤怒的百姓一把火烧了他的别墅。混乱中,李德立孤身一人,溜下了庐山。无奈之下,李德立找到了当时的英国领事替他出面。然而由于德化县衙的暗中抵制,拖住不办。这一场纷争,一拖就是十年。就在李德立对他的别墅梦感到绝望时,一个转机出现了。  

1894年,清朝政 府在甲午海战中败北,李德立乘机请英国政 府再次施加压力,这一招果然奏效,这一次,已经焦头烂额、自顾不暇的清朝政 府终于屈服了。1895年11月29日,英国驻九江领事与浔阳道台双方签订协议,了结了这场十年未决的土地纠纷案。根据协议,李德立以极低的价格租得长冲谷一带,共约4500亩土地,租期居然长达999年。
2019-12-01 14:14
IP:174.216.11.*

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4 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

采访:文化学者 罗时叙

按说都是官方的不应该有李德立,有李德立实际以法律上一种边缘的做法,就是用法律的形式来承认由李德立个人出面的一种租界,这种租界很残 酷,是999年,999年按照英国的法律,如果是以个人的身份在海外占有殖 民地不能超过一千年,所以这种很虚伪的这么样的长期霸占就999年。  

这里是中四路291号别墅,别墅是典型的英式建筑,位于长冲河的最佳位置,这栋别墅的主立面呈矩形,窗子装饰有繁琐精美的木格条。与众不同的是,这栋别墅竟有一个完全中式的门廊,显现出别墅的主人和中国不同寻常的关系。这栋别墅,就是当时英国领事的别墅。这是否是英国领事馆帮助李德立获得庐山土地的回报?我们不得而知,而庐山从此以后落入洋人之手,却是不争的事实。得到庐山的李德立想给这个地方取一个英国名字,那里原来的名字叫牯牛岭,于是,李德立给它取了一个英文名,KULING,也就是凉爽的意思。  

今天的庐山李德立纪念馆,至今珍藏着一幅李德立参与制作的庐山别墅规划图,这幅图详细描绘了在今天庐山上的别墅分布和实际规划情况。纪念馆馆长李震在整理馆藏文物时,偶然地发现了这张历经百年而不朽的庐山规划蓝图,透过这幅百年蓝图,今天的人们依然可以窥见这个英国青年的野心和梦想。

采访:庐山李德立纪念馆馆长 李震

我们从这里可以看出来,这幅图,它的绘制年代是1905年,这幅规划图,它是刻在块木板上,然后通过手工印在宣纸上。  

李德立请来教会的英国工程师甘约翰来主持制作庐山的规划图。还请来了德国的工程师李博德为他建造梦想中的别墅世界。这些高手的加入,使得庐山别墅的开发,从一开始就呈现出较高的水平。在当时的欧洲,十分流行建筑与自然的巧妙结合,他们将建筑不露声色地镶嵌在景物之中,从而实现人居与自然天衣无缝地融合。

采访:庐山李德立纪念馆馆长 李震

德国一个设计师曾经非常准确地给庐山的别墅下了一个判断,他是这么说的,他说庐山的别墅把照顾风景,就是同风景有机结合作为自己的最高原则,这是庐山的西式别墅最值得称道的地方。  

从甘约翰1905年绘制的这张庐山规划图上可以看出,由于实行了严格编号出售制度,每一块的建筑面积都恰到好处,加上每个建房者在每个方格里只能盖一栋别墅。且别墅的面积不得超过土地面积的15%。同时还尽可能地要体现业主本国的建筑艺术。这些严格的规定,使得庐山的别墅呈现了极高的科学和艺术价值。
2019-12-01 14:16
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5 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

采访:庐山李德立纪念馆馆长 李震

100多年后的今天,我们有幸能够看到由当年的规划图而产生的风格迥异的别墅,它们巧妙地掩映在庐山如痴如醉的天然景致之中,所有的同与不同,都和自然巧妙结合,令人叹为观止。2006年8月的一天,庐山上来了一位美国老人,他每到一处别墅前,都要驻足流连,似乎对庐山的情形十分熟悉。这个美国老人名叫吉姆,老人告诉我们,他的祖辈和父辈都曾经在庐山居住,而他的童年也在庐山留下了美好的回忆。

采访:美国老人 吉姆

我有一个很大的游玩的场所,那个地方特别好,有很多自然的游玩的地方,像有小瀑布啦,一些自然的地方给我们玩,跟德州比起来,这里简直就是天堂。  

在参观李德立纪念馆时,吉姆老人突然发现了一块界碑,吉姆老人一眼认出,这竟然就是他们家当年的界碑。老人说,正是庐山的那段生活,让他感悟了如何和自然和谐的相处。

采访:美国老人 吉姆

说起来这段生活对我造成了很大的影响,最重要的方面,是让我学会了如何欣赏大自然,是因为有那么多自然的东西在周围,所以它们帮助我学会欣赏大自然,学会如何和人相处。  

童年的生活给这位美国老人留下了深刻的印象,在他的记忆里,庐山上不仅有学校,还有15个网球场,3个游泳池。在那个兵荒马乱的时代,庐山宛如就是一个与世隔绝的世外桃源。这是吉姆老人珍藏的一张80多年前的广告招贴画,可以说这就是80年前房地产的推销广告,广告在长江沿线的客轮上广泛招贴,在它的左上角,对庐山有这样一段描述:庐山高四千余尺,为避暑的最佳之地。

采访:庐山管理局工商联合会主席 慕德华

那么通过这张广告我们还能看出来,可以看出来李德立先生精明的经营头脑,主要看出来他在二三十年代的时候就已经把这种西方的,休闲的这种方式引入到了中国,引入到了庐山,那么通过这种广告,通过他的团队向外广泛地宣传,来谋取最大的利益。  

今天,细心的游客可以发现,庐山上有不少带有十 字架的老房子,说明这些老房子都曾经是教 堂等宗 教活动场所。仔细查阅庐山的史料就会发现,庐山最早的业主,几乎都是世界各国的传教士。根据现代统计,在庐山上购买土地和别墅的,几乎涉及了近20个国家的55个宗 教组织,他们沿着长江而下,进入中国的腹地。而庐山正处于长江的中段,特殊的地理位置,使得庐山成了那个时期的宗教活动最频繁的地区之一。  

在庐山河东路197号,有一栋二层别墅,李德立时代,这里曾经是管理庐山的最高机 构,大英执事会。大英执事会是庐山当时买房的业主通过民 主选举产生的一个自治机构。执事会成立于1896年,最初由七名英国传教士和两名美国传教士组成,李德立曾经出任过第一届大英执事会的主席。由于执事会几乎包揽了庐山上的所有事务,所以大英执事会从一开始就将中国政 府排之门外。在西方的殖民者看来,庐山的主人已经是他们,这里的一切就应该由他们说了算。

采访:文化学者 罗时叙

他们后来实际上设立了巡警,实际上他向买他的土地人每年向他们收税,他以公司的方式每年向他们收税!等等的这种方式就把所谓的租借的方式改变,成为一个准租界。  

1928年,李德立将庐山的经营权转让给一个香港商人,离开中国去了新西兰发展,此时他已经从一个风华正茂的青年,变成了一个55岁的老人,他把一生中最宝贵的时光留给了庐山,也给庐山留下了一段复杂而又难言的历史。1935年底,中国政 府正式将庐山英租界收回。此时距离李德立承租的999年仅仅过去了40年。4年之后,65岁的李德立在新西兰病逝,那个地方离他生活过的庐山很远,很远。  

时光荏苒,100多年的时间过去了,李德立描绘的那张庐山规划图也已经泛黄破损,然而庐山老别墅却洗了历史的浮尘,吸引了世界各地的游人,其独特的艺术魅力和建筑风格,成为游人眼中一道亮丽的风景线。(编导:卞正林 王嘉 摄像:李斌 2007年4月16日播出)

责编:郭翠潇 (全文完)
2019-12-01 14:18
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6 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

Li Deli's Dream of Lushan Villas

(English Translation: Wren)

Lushan Mountain, known as Kuang Lu in ancient times, was named after the Kuang brothers who came to Lu and became immortals. So Lushan is also called "the Cabin of Immortals." After that, Li Bai, Su Dongpo, Bai Juyi, Zhu Xi and other celebrities have also lived in Lushan. From ancient times to the present, Lushan Mountain is the most suitable place for people to live in. 

Standing on the highlands of Guling Town, East Valley of Lushan Mountain, people can see that among the lush green trees, there are many western style villas. They are all beautifully built, reasonably planned and placed, bringing together all the architectural characteristics of European and American countries. In the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, this famous mountain by the Yangtze river once gathered thousands of people from more than 20 countries from all over the world and they all lived here. Therefore, it is also known as the Ten Thousand Nations’ Architectural Museum. For many tourists, traveling to Lushan to see the villas, has become their most important thing. However, few people know that the beautiful western villas on the Lushan Mountain came from a dream of a young Englishman.
  
This is a place called " Pine Forest with Moon Shadows" in Lushan Mountain. Deep in the woods, there is an abandoned villa. The villa was built of wood and glass, locals call it a glass house. The owner of this villa was the founder of the Lushan modern villa district, an English missionary, Li Deli. 
 
Li Deli, born in 1864 in Kent, Scotland, England. In 1886, the 22 year-old Li Deli came to China. 
 
1886 was the year 12th of Guangshu Emperor Qing Dynasty. In the winter of 1886, the Lushan ,barely seen any people, was very cold. One day, on the rugged mountain road, came two young men dressed in a preacher's robe, one of them was Li Deli.
2019-12-01 14:27
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7 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

Li Deli carried a map of the world and a British preacher's Guide arrived Lushan. Although the weather was cold and the road very bad, Li and his company didn't have any intention going back where they were from. No one had thought that, in the cold winter, their purpose of coming to Mount Lushan was to build a summer resort on the mountain. 
 
Jujiang is an important port on the edge of the Yangtze River. It is right here that Li Deli climbed the Lushan Mountain more than 100 years ago. In 1860, Jiujiang was forced to become an open port to the outside world, and many western adventurers came to China for gold, and Li Deli was no exception. But unlike other gold diggers, the 22-year-old was dressed as a preacher.

Interview: a cultural scholar, Luo Shi-su

He was an unknown, and I searched the list of foreign Christian missionaries in China, his name is not on it at all, and it appears to me that he was not a duly appointed preacher, not to mention which denomination he belonged to.
At that time in China, the western churches was the first-to-first force entered China, and some adventurers, often pretended to be missionaries, came to China to explore their business. This might be the case for Li Deli to act as a preacher, but a businessman he really was.

Li Deli, who came to China for business, found that many of the cities on the Yangtze River, in the summer, were extremely hot, and plagues were raging everywhere. Many Westerners in China wanted to have a summer resort. At this time, Li Duli picked the Lushan Mountain, which is by the Poyang Lake.

Interview: Li Zhen, Director of Lushan Li Deli Memorial Museum

By then the modern times, the Lushan was in fact very distressed , and the temples on the Lushan Mountain were not prosperous at all, the activities of Culture of the Academy also declined. 
 
Even so it was not any easy for Li Deli to buy land to build on the remote Lushan Mountain. The Qing government still had a strict control over foreigners buying and selling land in China, so Li Deli wanted to work with Keats, a host monk of Jiufeng Temple, to develop temple land. As a result, a missionary who believed in God and a monk who worshiped Buddha engaged in a marathon negotiation on the Lushan Mountain. 
2019-12-01 14:41
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8 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

Li Deli later wrote in his memoir, Lushan Pioneer, that this monk Keats was really difficult to deal with. They had a very small and extremely unsuitable piece of land, but often asking for a great price. In the end, the two parties fell apart on closing price. Because of the inconsistency of their words, Keats, who used to be employed as a killer in the Hunan Army, now then the host of the Buddha temple, could not help but wanted to beat Li Deli hard. Li Deli soon realized that he could only escape from Keats’ temple gate.

But Li Deli did not give up, he continued to climb the mountains, looking for the ideal land. One day, when he climbed to the heights of the Daughters City, as far as his eyes could reach, he saw the flat, wide, beautiful land stretched in the Chuangchong valley.

In front of him lay the hills of the Daughters City. By the time Li Deli stood on the top of the Daughter City and found the land of the east valley of Lushan Mountain flat with abundant water source and sun light, he thought that building a villa here would be wonderful as a paradise on the earth.

This photo shows the land that Li Deli favored, the east valley of Lushan before the development. So, as a foreigner, how could he get this land from the Qing government? Li Deli came up with a roundabout method. He hired a local Chinese and let him to intervene with local officials in the hope of renting the land. The Local officials assumed that Li Deli was a Chinese, so they readily agreed to rent the land to Li Deli. At first it went well, but later on the local officials found out that Li Deli was a foreigner and categorically decided to withdraw the contract.

Our Chinese saying, when one tactic fails, try another. This time Li Deli adopted a different approach. He thought of reaching upper classes for his goals.

At that time, Daotai (the governor?) , of Guangrao Jiunan Dao, had a scope of governing even larger than nowadays Jiujiang City's. His power even extended to Shangrao. Li Deli found the second highest position person of the city board, Tong Zhi, who knew a little English. Li Deli communicated with him quite often and found out Tong Zhi liked some Western style furniture, ornaments, and some other little things. So Li Deli sent him an English made electric bell and a silver cup. As a result, their friendship was brought closer.
2019-12-01 14:46
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9 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

Sure enough, money talks. Under the influence of Jiujiang Daotai, Li Deli hired only one Chinese agent, and obtained Lushan’s 4500 mu ( 1 mu equals one sixth of an acre) of land lease. Just as Li Deli was full of ambition and ready to fulfill his dream, a fire burned out his plan at all.
  
One night, the local people from the Lushan showed up with bright torches. They appeared at the residence where Li Deli lived by the Hankou Gorge. It was known to the local people that the Qing government leased the land to a foreigner and they believed that to develop the land would damage the Fengshui of their Dragon Water Source of their land so the local people just came to Li De-li to question him. Due to the language barrier, the two parties had a very difficulty time to communicate,as a result, the local people got so mad that they burned down Li Deli’s house. In all the chaos, Li Deli just escaped out of the Lushan.

However, Mr. Li found the British consul at that time as his support. But he had to face the resistance from the board of Dehua County of Lushan. His case was delayed. The land dispute lasted for a decade unsettled. Just as Deli was desperate for his villa dream, a turn of hope suddenly shinned. 
 
In 1894, the Qing government lost in the Sino-Japanese Sea War. Li Deli took the opportunity to ask the British government to exert duress on the Qing government again, and it worked out. This time, the desperate Qing government succumbed. On November 29, 1895, the British Consul of Jiujiang and the Daotai of Xunyang signed an agreement to settle the 10-year outstanding land dispute. According to the agreement, Li Deli was able to rent the land at a very low price, for a total of about 4,500 mu of land, and the lease term was 999 years.

It was said that there should have had no any individual as Li Deli involved, since the agreement was between two official parties. Li Deli actually adopted a legal marginal approach, that was, to recognize a kind of concession by Li Deli in the form of legislation,i.e., to establish a kind of concession. This kind of concession was very harsh and lasted for 999 years. According to then British law, if anyone could occupy a colony abroad under his personal capacity, he should not occupy any colonies overseas for more than a thousand years. Therefore, this kind of very hypocritical long-term occupation of concession was set to be as 999 years long, barely under the threshold by law. 
2019-12-01 14:53
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10 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

This is a villa on the Middle Fourth Road number 291, a typical British building, sit on the best lot by the Changchong river. The main facade of the villa is rectangular, and the window is framed with complex and delicate wooden bars. What really different is that the villa has a completely Chinese porch indicating that the owner of the villa used to have an unusual relationship with China. The villa used to be a British consul's. Was this a gift to the British Consulate for his help Li Duli to obtain the land of Lushan,or did the British Consulate actually buy it for himself ? We don't know.

By the time the Lushan had since fallen into the hands of foreigners, Li Deli, who got the land lease on the Lushan, wanted to give it an English name. This place used to be named Guniuling (The Buffalo Ridge) , now Li Deli named it KULING, which means a cool ridge. 
 
Today's Lushan Li Deli Memorial Hall has so far treasured a blueprint of Lushan villa produced by Li Deli. The blueprint had detailed the distribution and actual planning of villas on the Lushan . While sorting out the cultural relics in his collection, Li Zhen, director of the museum, stumbled upon this century-old blueprint of Lushan Mountain. From the blueprint, people today can still feel the ambitions and dreams of the British youth.

Interview: Li Zhen, Director of Lushan Li Deli Memorial Museum

We can see this from here, this blueprint, it was made in 1905. The original building plan was first carved on wood. The plan on wood then hand printed with ink on Chinese Xuan paper.

Li Deli invited a British engineer John Gump from a church and let him in charge of making a building plan for Lushan. A German engineer, Li Bode, had also been invited to join him. The addition of these experts made the development of the Lushan villa at a very high level from the beginning. At that time in Europe, it was very popular that the art of architecture always combined nature in a natural way. Once a building was completed inlaid in its surrounding nature, you would feel a seamless integration of the human settlement and the nature emerged.

A German designer once made a very accurate comment on the villas on the Lushan Mountain. He said that the thoughts of building the villas on Lushan, truly took extraordinary care of the scenery, treating it as its highest principle. This is really quite a complement for the western villas on the Lushan Mountain.
 
As we can tell from this 1905 blueprint of Lushan villas drawn by John Gump, they had adopted a strict numbering and selling system. Each lot was just right to allow each villa owner to build his own on the spot. And the acreage of the villa itself was not allowed to exceed 15% of the lot size. At the same time, it permitted the villa owner the freedom to show his own taste by deploying any architectural style as much as possible. These practices added both scientific and artistic values to each villa on Lushan.

More than 100 years later, now we are so lucky and grateful to see the villas on Lushan Mountain. Each of them are unique, and rich in style. The beauty of Lushan Mountain is totally reflected in their company. All the similarities and differences of the villas are naturally united with nature.
One day in August 2006, an American senior appeared on Lushan Mountain. Every time he saw a villa, he had to stop and wander, as if he knew a lot of things about the villa. The American senior, Jim, told us that his grandparents and parents had lived in Lushan Mountain for long, and his childhood was spent on the Lushan Mountain. His visit brought lots of warm memories back to him.
2019-12-01 14:56
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11 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

Interview: Jim

I had a big playground to play with, that place was so good. We explored many natural places, played here and there. We found small waterfalls. Just so many places in nature for us to play. Compared with what we have in Texas, this place is just a heaven for us.

During a visit to the Li Deli Memorial Hall, Jim suddenly found a boundary pillar of a villa. Jim recognized at a glance that this is the very boundary pillar of his family. The old man said that it was his life at Lushan made him appreciate our nature and live a life in harmony and peace at our mother nature.

Inter View: Jim

Speaking of this life experience, it has had a great impact on me. The most important aspect is that I have learned how to appreciate nature. There are so many natural things around us, they have helped me learn to appreciate nature, and learn to get along with people.
 
Jim was very impressed by his childhood. He remembered that Lushan used to have schools, 15 tennis courts and 3 swimming pools. So secluded the Lushan just looked like a paradise isolated from the rest of the world.

This is an advertisement poster collected by Jim more than 80 years ago. We can tell this piece used to be a promotion advertisement of some real estate agency’s. Then the advertisement posters were widely distributed and posted on passenger ships along the Yangtze River. On this poster’s upper left corner, it says, Lushan Mountain is more than 4,000 feet high, which is the best resort for your summer vacation.

Interview: President of the Lushan Administration of Industry and Commerce Federation, Mu Dehua

Well, look at this poster, we can still see that Mr. Li Deli had a shrewd business sense. Early in the 1920s and 1930s, he introduced this kind of western lifestyle of recreation concept into China and Lushan Mountain. Well, utilizing this kind of advertisement, to achieve extensive publicity, he was able to realize his best interest. 

Today, careful tourists can find that on the Lushan Mountain, there are many old houses with a cross on them. The cross indicates that these old houses used to be religious places such as churches. Scrutinizing the historical data of Lushan, we find that the earliest owners of Lushan villas were almost all missionaries from all over the world. According to modern research and statistics, 55 religious organizations from nearly 20 countries were involved in buying land and villas on the Lushan Mountain. They entered the hinterland of China along the Yangtze River. Below the Lushan Mountain, runs the Yangtze River. Due to its special geographical location, the Lushan Mountain area became one of the most active religious places in China in that period to time. 

Right here at 197 Hedong Road, Lushan, there is a two-story villa. At Li Deli’s time, it used to be the home for the highest organization in charge of Lushan, the British Deacon Council. The British Deacon Council was an autonomous body democratically elected by the owners of Lushan villas at that time. Founded in 1896, the Deacon Council was originally composed of seven British missionaries and two American missionaries. Li Deli was once chairman of the first British Deacon Council then. With the deacons managing almost everything on Lushan, the British deacon excluded the Chinese government from the start. In the views of the colonists from the West, they were the owners of Lushan Mountain , and everything here should be be depended on them to make any decisions.
2019-12-01 14:59
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12 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

Interview, Scholar of Culture, Luo Shixu

They actually set up a patrol police, and levied taxes on the locals who bought land from them every year, and Li Deli collected taxes on the land every year in the form of a corporation! In this way they changed the so-called lease method into a quasi-concession.
  
In 1928, Li Deli transferred his business right of Lushan operations to a Hong Kong businessman and left China for New Zealand. By this time, a once ambitious young man in his prime now was a 55-year-old. He left his most precious time of his life to Lushan, and left Lushan with a complicated and indescribable history. At the end of 1935, the Chinese government officially recovered the British concession of Lushan. It was only 40 years passed before Li Deli rented it for 999 years. Four years later, Li Deli, 65, died of illness in New Zealand, a place far far from Lushan, where he lived a legend.

Time flies. Now more than 100 years have passed, Li Deli’s Lushan villas blueprint has also faded and damaged. However, the beauty of old Lushan villas has washed the dust of history, and attracted many visitors all over the world to see its unique artistic charm and rich architectural styles. Lushan villas have become a beautiful landscape in the eyes of all visitors.

(DIrector:Bian Zhenglin Wang Jia; Photography:Li Bin. Aired: 04/16/2007) ( END 全文完)
2019-12-01 15:03
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13 radha

女/28 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

好,将来带我亲爱的伴侣一起去游庐山。^v^

精通外语真好,可以看很多很多书。
2019-12-01 17:19
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14 pangzzzz

女/54 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

谢谢转载,可以好好检查一下英语退化的程度!翻翻看看,有事做了!
2019-12-02 00:23
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15 月儿

女/41 真诚指数

回复:牯牛岭的历史 - 李德立的庐山别墅梦(转)

姐姐没事你帮我英语恶补一下,这样我才能看懂你得帖子。哈哈
2019-12-02 10:05
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16 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复 15 [月儿]

月儿:

我怎么说呢,我觉得你懂26个字母就很好了的;庐山你倒是去过没有?

我高一才开始学的英语,也不知道学的是什么,冬天的晚上寒冷,我妈妈纺了线已经睡下,被子盖到下巴不时抬一下头瞄我一下。我在床那头灯椅上坐,就着煤油灯写作业。轮到写英语作业了,我妈妈老是要我读个英语词给她听听英语是什么样子的?我扭扭捏捏半天都开不了口,磕磕巴巴勉强挤出来一个字,我妈听了觉得很好笑,觉得英语这样叽里咕噜的,怎么知道它是什么意思。。。
2019-12-02 10:34
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17 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复 14 [pangzzzz]

好的呀,谢谢你pangzzzz.
2019-12-02 10:35
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18 月儿

女/41 真诚指数

回复 16 [Wren]

哈哈,我记得我那时学英语,会用汉字代替“狗的毛宁”。
讲个笑话给你听,我儿子上三年级时忘带英语书了,一早就打电话让送英语去过,他爸爸给他送书,打开一看用汉字写了“奶死”。他爸气的回来和我说不看是一早我都骂他了哈哈!
2019-12-02 13:56
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19 Wren

女/56 真诚指数

回复 18 [月儿]

月儿:

你儿子好可爱;他的爸爸好像脾气也还不错。狗的毛宁,也很好玩,哈哈~
2019-12-03 13:41
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20 月儿

女/41 真诚指数

回复 19 [Wren]

哈哈姐姐,那是因为他爸自己也用汉字代替过~
2019-12-03 14:01
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